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Vujadin Rudić and Milomir Stepić

Ethnic Changes in the Raška Region

Source: The Serbian Questions in The Balkans, University of Belgrade, publisher - Faculty of Geography, Belgrade 1995.


Ethnic structure of the population of Raška region (Sandžak) in Serbia
- according to the population census on March 31, 1981 -
(click on the image for full size)

The Raška region covers the parts of the south-west Serbia, northern and south-east Montenegro. This region includes mostly the territories of the present municipalities: Priboj, Nova Varoš, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Tutin, Rožaje, Berane, Bijelo Polje, and Pljevlja. Except for the Rožaje and Berane municipalities, the territories of these municipalities mostly belonged to the former Sanjak Novi Pazar. The territory of the above mentioned municipalities covers an area of 8201 sq. km. There are 420,000 inhabitants. This territory is not specific in physical and geographical sense and in social, economic, or political sense, either. The territory of the Raska region has a specific geographical position since it links the two Serbian states: Serbia and Montenegro, and it connects Bosnia with Kosovo and Metohia. This territory is specific for the reason that there is a mixture of the Serbian population of Orthodox and Muslim affiliation. It is necessary to point out that the Muslim population of the Raska region is under the great influence of the Islamic centres such as Istanbul, Teheran, Cairo, and Sarajevo. A11 this disturbs the relationships and co-operation among the populations of different affiliations but of one and the same ethnic origin.

The ethnic structure of the population of the Raska region is rather complex, complicated, and difficult to analyse. This results from the historical development of the Raska region, the events of which made it possible for the populations of different confessions "...to declare themselves, in certain social and economic, cultural and political circumstances, as members of different nations even though their ethnic roots are the same."[1] In the census after World War II, the population of the Muslim faith declared themselves as Serbs, Montenegrins, Turks, undecided Muslims, undecided Yugoslavs, Muslims-ethnic, Yugoslavs, and in the 1971, 1981, and 1991 censuses they declared themselves as Muslims in the sense of a people. There were also problems with the population of the Orthodox affiliation since they sometimes declared themselves as Serbs, and sometimes as Montenegrins even though they belong to the same people: the Serbian. However, the ethnic map of the Raska region could lead us to conclude that we talk of the two nationalities belonging to two different races ("ethnic boundaries" are very pronounced). The boundaries are artificial, purely technical, defined by the state that observed neither ethnic nor historical criteria. Nations are formed by the processes of ethnogenesis, not by decrees of party congresses and governmental agencies. Owing to the decrees of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and the state authorities of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Serbian people in this area is divided today into three separate peoples: the Serbs (living in Serbia), the Montenegrins (the Serbs living in Montenegro), and the Muslims (Islamized Serbs living in Serbia and in Montenegro).

In the 1948 and 1953 censuses, the ethnic structure of the population of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was shown by administrative districts, and in later censuses by municipalities and settlements. No comparison of the 1948 and 1953 data with the data given in the later censuses (1961, 1971, 1981, 1991) is possible for two main reasons: territorial and socio-political. The territories of the former districts do not coincide with the territories of the present municipalities. Socio-economic and political conditions kept changing after the Second World War, which depended primarily upon the process of democratisation and the political climate of the time.

Table 1. Ethnic Structure of the Population in the Raška Region.
The 1948 Census

Districts

Total

Serbs

Montenegrins

Undecided Muslims

Other

Count

%

Count

%

Count

%

Count

%

Priboj

17,845

16,721

93.70

101

0.56

1023

5.74

-

-

Prijepolje

28,804

28,067

97.44

313

1.08

401

1.39

23

0.09

Nova Varoš

19,265

19,224

99.78

16

0.08

9

0.06

16

0.08

Sjenica

34,805

34,693

99.67

11

0.03

82

0.23

19

0.07

Novi Pazar

32,156

31,094

96.69

7

0.02

998

3.10

57

0.19

Tutin

24,662

24,384

98.87

18

0.07

250

1.06

-

-

Bijelo Polje

36,795

402

1.09

36,351

98.79

4

0.01

38

0.11

Pljevlja

35,926

329

0.91

35,489

98.78

29

0.08

79

0.23

Berane

64,998

423

0.66

62,072

95.50

14

0.02

2487

3.82

Total

295,256

155,337

52.61

134,380

45.51

2820

0.95

2719

0.93

Note: The authors think that the Serbs and the Montenegrins are one nation. But, because of the official statistical data, they are shown in the text and in the tables as separate entities. The authors are of the opinion that the Muslims are not a separate people, and that they are the Serbs of the Muslim confession. It is also necessary to point out that the process of ethnogenesis in the Muslim population is very rapid and that they are acquiring specific psycho-ethnological features.

According to the 1948 census the main features of the ethnic structure of the population were as follows: in all of the districts of the Serbian part of the Raska region territory over 93% of the population were the Serbs, and over 91 % in the Montenegrin part were the Montenegrins; the greatest number of the undecided Muslims was in the districts of Priboj and Novi Pazar, and the smallest number in the district of Berane. The greatest share of other nationalities was in the Berane district (due to numerous Squiptars /Albanians/ in the vicinity of Plav), and the smallest in the districts of Sjenica, Nova Varoš, and Novi Pazar. In the district of Priboj, there were no members of other peoples since all of the population declared themselves as either Serbs or Montenegrins, or undecided Muslims.

Table 2. Ethnic Structure of the Population in the Raška Region

The 1953 Census

Districts
Total
Serbs
Montenegrins
Undecided Yugoslavs
Turks
Others
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Count
%
Priboj
20,784
16,230
78.08
100
0.48
4,168
20.05
110
0.52
176
0.87
Prijepolje
33,846
25,665
75.82
396
1.17
7,526
22.23
51
0.15
208
0.63
Nova Varoš
21,424
20,865
97.39
27
0.12
486
2.26
-
-
46
0.23
Sjenica
38,179
23,412
61.32
102
0.26
13,758
36.03
678
1.77
229
0.62
Novi Pazar
53,331
25,177
50.02
174
0.34
13,564
26.94
11,009
21.87
407
0.83
Tutin
27,983
5,006
17.88
103
0.36
19,090
68.21
3,139
11.21
645
2.34
Bijelo Polje
41,432
487
1.17
39,477
95.28
1,468
3.55
-
-
-
-
Pljevlja
40,876
827
2.02
37,368
91.41
2,401
5.87
-
-
280
0.70
Berane
70,641
356
0.50
64,201
90.88
2,127
3.01
-
-
3,957
5.61
Total
345,496
118,025
34.16
141,948
41.08
64,588
18.69
14,987
4.33
5,948
1.74

According to the 1953 census, the main features of the ethnic structure of the population of the Raska region are as follows: undecided Yugoslavs appeared in all of the districts, and particularly in the districts of Tutin, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, and Prijepolje; the absolute and the relative counts of the Serbian and Montenegrin population dropped in comparison with the 1948 data, especially in the districts with the population of Islamic confession (Sjenica 38.12%, Novi Pazar 46.35%, Tutin 80.70%); there was a great number of the members of the Turkish national minority in the districts of Novi Pazar and Tutin (there were certainly those of the Turkish origin, but the greatest number of them were the Serbian population of Islamic faith); the share of other peoples in the districts of Berane and Tutin increased (they were mostly of the Shqiptar/Albanian/ national minority) and further divisions of the Serbian people into Serbs and Montenegrins continued, which does not have credibility from the scientific point of view, and is rather harmful from the political point of view.

Table 3 Ethnic Structure by Municipalities in the Raska Region

The Nova Varoš municipality covers the area of 579 sq. km. In 1981, 22,525 inhabitants lived in this territory (Serbs 88.19%, Montenegrins 0.65%, Muslims 8.31%). In all the settlements (32) the Serbs comprised the majority of the population. In the villages they comprised 98.20%, and the Muslims 0.20%. But, in Nova Varoš, the municipal centre, lived 71.90% of the Serbian population, 1.20% of the Montenegrin population, and 21.60% of the Muslim population. The village of Bistrica was characteristic of 45 members of the Romany (Gypsy) population. The population of the municipality is undergoing the process of biological depopulation since in the period 1971-1981 and later the natural population increase rate was negative (-1.00%o). In the period 1971-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased by 6.23%, and the Muslim population increased by 4.67%.

The Prijepolje municipality covers the area of 829 sq. km. In 1981, there were 46,902 inhabitants (53.38% Serbs, 2.59% Montenegrins, and 40.67% Muslims). In 49 settlements (61.25%) over 50% of the population were Serbs, and in 29 settlements (36.25%) Muslims, and in two settlements none of these constituted majority. In the rural settlements, 53% of the population were Serbs, and 43% Muslims. In Prijepolje, the urban centre, 54.30% of the population were Serbs, 4.20% Montenegrins, and 35.60% Muslims. 74.50% of the land belonged to the Serbs and 23.90% to the Muslims. In the period 1961-1991, the Muslim population constantly increased, and the Serbian population decreased. In the period 1971-1981, the natural population increase rate was 6.30%o. In the period 1971-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased by 4.14%, and the Muslim population increased by 24.60%.

In 1981, 35,200 inhabitants (63.40% Serbs, 2.54% Montenegrins, 29.28% Muslims) lived on the territory of the Priboj municipality (552 sq. km). In 27 (81.80%) settlements the Serbian population constituted majority, and in 6 (18.20%) settlements the Muslims comprised majority. The Serbian population lived on 88.20% of the territory, and the Muslim population lived on 11.80%. In the rural settlements, 75.40% of the population were Serbs, and 22.40% Muslims. In Priboj, the urban centre, 52.30% of the population were Serbs, 4.30% Montenegrins, and 35.70% Muslims. In the period 1971-1981, the natural population increase rate in the municipality was 7.80%o. In the period 1971-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population increased by 9.74%, and the Muslim population increased by 11.36%.

The Sjenica municipality covers the area of 1056 sq. km. In 1981, there were 35,570 inhabitants (28.94% Serbs, 0.43% Montenegrins, and 68.04% Muslims). Out of the total number of settlements (101), the Serbs constituted majority in 48 settlements (47.50%), and the Muslims in 53 settlements (52.50%). In rural settlements, 30.70% of the population were Serbs, and 66.50% Muslims. In Sjenica, the municipal centre, 25% of the population were Serbs, 0.70% Montenegrins, and 71.40% Muslims. The Serbian population owned 39.20% of the land and the Muslim population 60.80%. In the period 1961-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality rapidly decreased, and the Muslim population constantly increased. The Sjenica municipality suffers from the biological loss of population, so in the period 1971-1981 the natural population increase rate was negative (-2.90%o). In the period 1971-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 45.34%, and the Muslim population increased by 30.55%.

The Tutin municipality covers the area of 741 sq. km. In 1981, there were 32,779 inhabitants (7.03% Serbs, 0.14% Montenegrins, and 91.91% Muslims). In 85 settlements (91.40%), over 50% of the population were the Muslims, and the Serbs had majority in 7 settlements (7.50%) only. Only one settlement was without ethnic majority. The Muslims had the majority (92.70%) in rural settlements and (88.40%) in urban. In the period 1961-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin rationality was rapidly going down, and the Muslim population was constantly increasing. Ethnically speaking, this means that the territory of the municipality could be completely Muslim within the next ten years. In 1971-1981, the natural population increase rate was 10.70%o. In the period 1971-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 59.38% and the Muslim population showed an increase of 31.76%.

The Novi Pazar municipality covers the area of 742 sq. km. In 1981, 74,000 inhabitants (29.50% Serbs, 0.39% Montenegrins, 67.25% Muslims, and 2.86% other) lived on the territory. In 70 (70.70%) settlements, the Serbs comprised over 50% of the population, and the Muslims had majority in 28 (28.30%). Only one settlement was without ethnic majority. In rural settlements there were 46% Serbs, 51.60% Muslims. The ethnic structure of Novi Pazar was as follows: 16.90% Serbian and Montenegrin population, and 79.80% Muslim population. The Serbian population lived on 61% of the municipal territory, and the Muslim population on 38.50%. These data show that the Muslims are mainly concentrated in the town of Novi Pazar. In the period 1961-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population was decreasing, and the Muslim population was constantly increasing. If this process continued, and it will, the territory of the Novi Pazar municipality could be, sooner or later, ethnically speaking, pure. The municipality of Novi Pazar has a high natural population increase rare, and in the period 1971-1981 it was 14%o. In the period 1971-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 24.69%, and the Muslim population increased by 69.52%.

The Bijelo Polje municipality covers the area of 924 sq. km. In 1981, 55,634 inhabitants (57.20% Montenegrins, 1.70% Serbs, and 37.45% Muslims) lived in the territory. Out of the total number of settlements (98) in 56 settlements (57,10%) over 50% of the population were the Montenegrins, while the Muslims constituted majority in 38 settlements (38.80%). Four settlements only were without ethnic majority. In rural settlements there were 59.20% Montenegrins, 37.20% Muslims. Higher ethnic concentration of the Muslims was noticed in the town of Bijelo Polje (52.90% Montenegrins, 2.70% Serbs, and 38.40% Muslims). The Serbian and Montenegrin population owned 72.61% of land, and the Muslim population owned 24.70%. In the period 1961-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population was decreasing, and the Muslim population was increasing. In 1988, the natural population increase rare was 11.70%o. In the period 1971-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 6.11 %, and the Muslim population increased by 23.80%.

The Pljevlja municipality covers the area of 1346 sq. km. In 1981, 43,316 inhabitants (74.60% Montenegrins, 5.30% Serbs, and 16.10% Muslims) lived on the territory. Out of the total number of settlements (158), in 128 settlements (81%) over 50% of the population were the Montenegrins, in 2 (1.30%) the Serbs, in 19 (12%) the Muslims, while 8 settlements (5.10%) were without ethnic majority; the data for one settlement were not available. The Montenegrins owned 88.70% of land, the Serbs owned 0.40%, and the Muslims 8.90%. The ethnic structure of the population in the town of Pljevlja in 1981 was as follows: 59.70% Montenegrins, 4.60% Serbs, and 29.40% Muslims. In 1988, the natural population increase rate was 6.70%o. In the period 1961-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased by 16.03%, and the Muslim population by 17.95%.

The Berane municipality covers the area of 1000 sq. km. In 1981, 49,772 inhabitants (69.80% Montenegrins, 1.70% Serbs, and 24.90% Muslims) lived in the territory. In 68 (75.60%) settlements over 50% of the population were the Montenegrins, and in 22 settlements (24.40%) the Muslims. The Montenegrins owned 82.80% of the municipal territory and the Muslims owned 17.20%. In rural settlements, 68.10% of the population were Montenegrins, and 28.40% Muslims. In the town of Berane, 74.30% of the population were Montenegrins, 2.80% Serbs, and 15.60% Muslims. The Montenegrin, Serbian, and Muslim population was temporarily increasing, but looking on the whole, it is decreasing. In 1988, the natural population increase rare was 7.40%o. In the period 1961-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 7.70%, and the Muslim population decreased by 4.64%.

The Rožaje municipality covers the area of 432 sq. km. In 1981, 20,227 inhabitants (9.39% Montenegrins, 0.78% Serbs, and 83.92% Muslims) lived n the territory. In 19 settlements (73.10%) the Muslim population constituted majority, and in 3 (11.50%) the Montenegrin. Only one settlement was without ethnic majority; there are no available data for three settlements. The Muslim population lived on 69.90% and the Montenegrin population on. 10% of the municipal territory. Also, 863 members of the Squiptars/Albanian/ rational minority lived on 19% of the municipal territory. In rural settlements 83% of the population were Muslims, 9.30% Montenegrins. The ethnic structure of the population of the town of Rožaje, the centre of the municipality, was similar to that in the rural settlements. In the period 1961-1991, the Montenegrin and Serbian population was rapidly decreasing, and the Muslim population was constantly increasing. Ethnically speaking, the territory of the municipality will soon become completely Muslim. In 1988, the natural population increase rate was 19.19%o. In the period 1971-1991, the number of inhabitants of the Serbian and Montenegrin nationality decreased by 30.08%, and the Muslim population increased by 60.54%.

Table 4 Ethnic Structure of the Population in the Raška Region.

The territory of the Raška region includes ten municipalities: six in Serbia (Priboj, Nova Varoš, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Turin, and Novi Pazar) and four in Montenegro (Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje, Berane, and Rožaje). In 1981, 50.44% of the Serbs and Montenegrins, 46.28% of the Muslims, and 3.28% of other nationalities lived on the territory. The Serbian and Montenegrin population lived on 65.70% of the territory, the Muslim population on 31.90%, which is 14.40% less compared to their share in the total population. In all of the urban settlements the percentage of the Muslim population was higher compared to their share in the municipality, the only exception being the municipality of Berane. Discussing the privileges of the Islamized Serbian population, Ejup Mušović points out: "The people who accepted Islam, whatever reason propelled them, went to live in towns since life in towns was easier, in other words, they were privileged, not only economically."[2] Apart from living in towns, the Muslim population lives in suburban rural settlements, river valleys, and along the lines of communications, except on the territories where they comprise absolute majority (Sjenica, Turin, Rožaje).

Fig. I. - Ethnic structure of the population in the Raška region. The 1981 population census

In the period 1961-1991, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased, and among others, the reasons were: emigration for economic reasons, religious and national intolerance, low natural population increase rate which caused a biological loss of population. In the period 1961-1971, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased by 7.52%, in the period 1971-1981 by 4.84%, and in the period 1981-1991 by 7.53%. From 1961-1991, in the territory of the Montenegrin part of the Raška region, the Serbian and Montenegrin population decreased by 18.62%, and in the Serbian part of the Raška region it decreased by 18.63%. This shows that the social, economic, and political circumstances in the Raška region are equal in both republics.

Fig. 2.- Number of Serbs, Montenegrins and Muslims in the Raška region
(click on the image for full size)

In the period 1961-1991, the Muslim population increased due to a number of factors, among which the following are the most important: a high rate of natural population increase and the cessation of emigration into Turkey. Ejup Mušović wrote that "...13,074 Muslims emigrated to Turkey from the territories of the municipalities of Novi Pazar, Turin, and Sjenica in the period 1950-1970.... Having realised that emigrating to Turkey would not solve the problem of living, the Muslims gave up the idea of further emigration in 1970.[3] In the period 1961-1971, the Muslim population increased by 49.82%,-in the period 1971-1981 by 19.79%, and in the period 1981-1991 by 11.82%. In the Montenegrin pair of the Raška region, in the period 1961-1991, the Muslim population increased by 112.60%, and in the Serbian part of this region it increased by 96.28%.

It is also necessary to give a short account of that portion of the population of the Muslim faith that declared themselves as Turks. Their declaring themselves as Turks, till the 1961 census inclusive, was caused by a set of social, economic, cultural, political, psychological, and other factors. According to the 1948 census, there were no members of the Turkish national minority. In the same year, the Islamized Serbian population and an h relevant number of the Turks declared themselves as Serbs, Montenegrins, or undecided Muslims, of whom there were only 2800 in the territory of the Raška region. According to the 1953 census, mostly the Muslim population declared themselves as undecided Yugoslavs and Turks. The Turkish population lived predominantly in towns, particularly in Novi Pazar, Tutin, and Sjenica. In the 1961 census, approximately the same number of inhabitants of Muslim affiliation declared themselves as Turks /15,440/. The majority of them lived in Novi Pazar, Tutin, Prijepolje, Bijelo Polje, and Sjenica.

In 1981, 1583 members of the Squiptar/Albanian/ national minority lived on the territory of the Raška region. They settled in the municipalities of Rožaje (Bandžov, Dacići, Ibarac, Plumci, Rožaje), Sjenica (Ugao, Rasno, and Sjenica), Novi Pazar (Brdjani, Mur, Pobrdje, and Novi Pazar). The concentration of the Romany (Gypsy) population was high in the towns of Novi Pazar, Prijepolje, Berane, and Bijelo Polje. Other nationalities were insignificant in number in all censal years.

Having in mind social, economic, cultural, psychological, and political circumstances in Serbia and Montenegro, it is obvious that ethnic processes in the Raška region will develop to the disadvantage of the Serbs and Montenegrins. The Serbian and Montenegrin population will decrease, and the Muslim population will increase. A high degree of homogenisation of the Muslim population is evident on the territories of the municipalities of Sjenica, Tutin, and Rožaje, and the pares of the territories of the Bijelo Polje, Prijepolje, and Berane municipalities. The homogenisation was caused by a number of factors, among which the following should be emphasised: demographic, economic, social, cultural, political, and religious.

It is estimated that the Muslims will reach about 60% of the population of this region in the year 2000. The two Serbian states, Serbia and Montenegro, must create a national programme of development and undertake radical measures in establishing an optimum ratio between the Serbs and the Montenegrins, on the one side, and the Muslims, on the other. It must be emphasised that the Serbs and Muslims in this region represent the Serbian population of Orthodox and Muslim confessions and that they are so mixed that they cannot come into conflicts as the clashes would lead them to the common disaster. A faster social, economic, and cultural development of the Raška region is the only guarantee that the Serbian people of different confessions will be on the route to prosperity and co-operation, since primitive nationalism stems from the lack of education, poverty, and misery. So, the Serbs, Montenegrins, and Muslims are linked by destiny in this region and they have to get accustomed to living together. This region has a very important geostrategic position and it will continue to be the region of imbuing and separating, which Serbia and Montenegro have to bear in mind

NOTES

1. Vujadin Rudić, "Sociogeografske karakteristike Brodareva," /Socio-Geographical Characteristics of Brodarevo/ in Užički zbornik, 16 (Užice: Istorijski arhiv i Narodni muzej, 1987), p. 453.

2. Ejup Mušović, Tutin i okolina. /The Town of Turin and its Surroundings/ Etnografski institut, SANU, 27 (Belgrade, 1985), p.29.

3. Ibid., p. 120.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Ćorović, Vladimir. Istorija Srba, 1. /History of the Serbs/ Belgrade: BIGZ, 1989.
  • Jevrić, Milovan. Stanovništvo opštine Mojkovac. /The Population of The Mojkovac Municipality/ Issue 59. Srpsko geografsko drustvo. Belgrade, 1984.
  • Jovanović, Batrić. Crnogorci o sebi. /The Montenegrins about Themselves/ Belgrade: Narodna knjiga, 1986.
  • Lutovac, Milisav. Bihor i Korita. SANU, 40. Belgrade, 1967.
  • Mrkonjić, Petar. Srednje Polimlje i Potarje u Novopazarskom Sandžaku. /The Middle Lim and Tara River Basins in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar/ Srpski etnografski zbornik, 4. Belgrade, 1902.
  • Radulović, Ilija ..Bijelo Polje, Glasnik Srpskog geografskog društva, XIX. Belgrade, 1933.
  • Rudić, Petar. O nacionalnom imenu muslimana s osvrtom na knjigu Ćamila Sijarića "Herceg-Bosno i tvoji gradovi". /On the National Name of the Muslims.../ Belgrade: Stručna knjiga, 1988. D Rudić, Vujadin. "Geografske karakteristike bjelopoljskog kraja," /Geographical Characteristics of Bijelo Polje/ Bijelo Polje. Belgrade: Stručna knjiga, 1987.
  • Šćepanović, Žarko. Srednje Polimlje i Potarje. /The Middle Lim and Tara River Basins/ Etnografski institut, SANU, 20. Belgrade, 1979.
  • Vlahović, Petar. "Stanovništvo Novog Pazara i njegove okoline," /The Population of Novi Pazar and its Surroundings/ Novi Pazar i okolina. Belgrade: Književne novine, 1969.
  • Vlahović, Petar. "Procesi islamizacije u nekim našim krajevima," Islamization Processes.../ Glasnik Etnografskog instituta, SANU, XXX. Belgrade, 1981.
  • Vukčević, Nikola. Etničko poreklo Crnogoraca. /The Ethnic Origin of the Montenegrins/ Belgrade, 1981.
  • Publications of the Census Returns from 1948 to 1991. Belgrade, SZS, RZS.

Dr Vujadin Rudić is Professor of Methodic of Teaching Geography at the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade. His major area of research is Geography of Population and Settlements. In addition to numerous scientific papers (about forty), he has published Stanovništvo Toplice /The Population of Toplica/ (1978), Stanovništvo Prokuplja /The Population of Prokuplje/ (1992), Metodika nastave geografije /Methodics of Teaching Geography/ (1991), and Bijelo Polje /Monograph/ (1987, one of the co-authors).

Milomir Stepić, Assistant at the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, received his Masters degree from the same University. His area of research is Political Geography with a special emphasis on geopolitical processes in the Balkans and economic Geography. He has published a number of scientific papers concerning the boundaries, delimitation's and geopolitical interests in Southeast Europe, and the series of ethnic maps of Yugoslavia. He is one of the co-authors of Etnicki sastav stanovnistva Bosne i Hercegovine /The Ethnic Structure of the Population of Bosnia and Herzegovina/ (1992).


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